The goal of TRIPS is to design, describe and demonstrate practical steps to place people with mobility challenges at the centre of the design of inclusive digital mobility solutions. Our deliverables report on this work and represent our commitment to processes that are created with, for and by persons with disabilities.

work packages

The overall work in TRIPS is organised into eight work packages.

Work package 1

WP1 provides the overall support for both management and administration of the entire project and for all partners-members of the TRIPS consortium, following the set of project management principles as contained in the Project Management Handbook. The overall objective of this WP is the implementation of a sound project and financial management plan including, reporting to the European Commission (EC), ensuring delivery of TRIPS results on time and within budget, and maintaining a high level of quality of the deliverables.

Work package 2

The key objective of WP2 is to set up the initial user community for conducting exploratory qualitative research and working groups for conducting quantitative research with the view to understand users’ divergent needs with respect to mobility and their attitudes towards future mobility solutions. A Mixed-Methods-Approach based on the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods will be applied to study the user needs. The findings of WP2 will be used as the baseline for assessing the accessibility of future mobility solutions in WP3 and inform the evaluation and prioritisation in WP4.

Work package 3

WP3 will review future mobility possibilities in relation to assistive and ICT technology trends relating to mobility, in order to identify gaps with the view to explore synergistic solutions across the three fields in WP4. The main objective of the work package is to achieve an understanding of the framework conditions, under which existing and future innovative service models in mobility are practiced. This will take the form of 3 desktop research tasks into the trends in the following areas: Mobility Services, Digital Technology and Policy, Accessibility standards and Assistive Technologies.

Work package 4

The objective of WP4 is to generate a prioritised list of mobility challenges to drive innovation opportunities embraced both by user and institutional actors and, at the same time, to develop an accessibility metrics methodology with particular reference to vulnerable users, in order to assess the mobility divide between different user categories. We will build on WP3’s review of future mobility, assistive and ICT technology trends relating to mobility, in order to take the next steps and identify gaps and explore synergistic solutions across the three fields. Based on the WP3 groundwork, WP4 will also assess the functional, contextual and institutional barriers across domains for satisfying those needs.

Work package 5

The main deliverable of WP5 is a tested and validated co-design-for-all methodology that can be adapted to engage disabled people in open innovation in any sector to tackle a broad range of design challenges. All the methodological work of the project is encapsulated in WP5 which will start on M1 and run throughout the duration of the project. It lends its methods from and derives inputs from the UX research undertaken in WP2 and drives the user-centric approach for the Pilot case studies (WP6) and for engagement (WP8).

Work package 6

WP6 serves two purposes. On the one hand, it applies the developed co-design-for-all methodology in practice with local users and transport ecosystem in context. By doing so it provides the opportunity to test and validate it and elicit lessons learned from this practical application. It will also apply the accessibility metrics methodology developed in WP4 in order to outline the ex-ante and ex-post mobility divide values for each pilot case. On the other hand, the resulting mobility solutions (designs and demonstrators), along with an associated business case for their full-scale deployment become an asset of the local transport ecosystems and an example to imitate and learn from for other cities and regions. Lessons learned and outcomes, as well as policy, institutional and other challenges encountered will also inform the comprehensive roadmap (incl. policy and industry recommendations) in WP7.

Work package 7

WP7 integrates the outcomes of WP2-WP6 to form industry and policy recommendations to ensure the inclusive design of future mobility systems. To do so it builds on the UX research undertaken in WP2 that outlines user mobility needs, as well as their attitudes towards future mobility solutions, and related ICT and assistive technologies identified (WP3) and anticipated gaps. WP4 tries to break down disciplinary silos and engage users and experts in exploring innovation ideas across mobility, ICT and assistive technologies and their potential to address some of the identified gaps and result in a number of Design Concepts evaluated for their feasibility from an institutional point of view and user desirability to create a prioritise list of potential innovation briefs; some of which were tested in WP6. Lessons learned and outcomes, policy, institutional and other challenges encountered, will also inform the comprehensive roadmap in WP7 including policy and industry recommendations.

Work package 8

WP8 aims at systematically connecting the project with project external stakeholders thus creating a community of potentially interested change makers and critical mass. The purpose of seeking this dialogue with them is to raise interest in the project and its expected outcomes, to collect early feedback and use that as valuable input for improving the results the consortium wishes to obtain and, last but not least, to inform the exploitation strategy. In order to reach these aims the consortium under this WP will develop a dissemination strategy and implement dissemination activities with feedback loops and design an exploitation strategy based on the input of possible users of the project outcomes.


Use of the TRIPS deliverables are subject to proper citation and Creative Commons as outlined at Some deliverables are currently under review.

TRIPS Co-design for All course

The Co-design for All course is a free online programme on how to make use of the TRIPS methods to engage persons with disabilities to tackle a broad range of design challenges in any sector. It is aimed at anyone who is interested in learning about co-design methods and how to apply them in any real life scenario. The course is broken down into modules, each with a video lecture and an exercise. Each module focuses on a specific strategy created with the seven cities participating in the project. As a set these strategies form a structure that aims to centre the people most affected by a change-process in it, so that they are in control of determining what this process is used for, and how it will affect their lives.  

TRIPS Co-design for All toolkit

The TRIPS Co-design for All toolkit provides an overview of the main methods that have been co-created and piloted with seven participating cities in the project. These training materials synthesise the results of 2.5 years of engagements and the journey in co-creating a methodology to engage persons with disabilities in the design of accessible public transport.

The toolkit is constituted by exercises, templates and guidelines that have been co-created and continuously iterated throughout the project. These materials are organised into six modules, each representing a phase of the end-to-end design process the groups went through in the project.


The Mobility Divide Index (MDI) is a new tool created with and for persons with disabilities to evaluate the accessibility of existing public transport in their cities. It was developed through a co-design process, in which people from 7 cities were involved to identify critical accessibility issues based on their own experiences.

The MDI makes use of a series of factors to measure the accessibility gap, that is the barriers that prevent persons with disabilities from accessing public transport. You can start using the MDI now as a web app and also on your phone: android and apple.

The MDI is part of the European Accessibility Observatory that collates, and visualises detailed user feedback in ways that can be actionable for planning, running and managing urban mobility. The aim is to inform decision making in public policy and build the case for equal access to transport – a core aspect of independent living and a key right for everyone. Any feedback or questions please contact Leonardo Benzi on

Lecco Declaration for Accessible and Inclusive public transport

Representatives of the Association for the Advancement of Assistive Technology in Europe (AAATE), the European Network on Independent Living (ENIL) and the International Association of Public Transport (UITP) met on 12 July 2022 in Lecco in Italy to discuss ways to rapidly progress with accessible and safe public transport for all, building on the advancements in universal design and accessible technologies. The Lecco Declaration for Accessible and Inclusive Public Transport, a commitment with 8 key principles, was drafted and signed by the three parties.  With this declaration, they hope to reinvigorate the commitment of all public transport stakeholders, including policy makers and transport providers, towards accessibility. Further action should be inspired by the principles, reflecting values the sector should uphold. All stakeholders, whether representing organisations or themselves, are invited to sign this declaration and to act according to these principles, supported by specific Memorandums of Understandings and Action Plans at European, national or local levels.

No passenger left behind: Co-creating accessible public transport

This Project Brief provides a snapshot of the work developed in each of the seven pilot cities and their unique approaches to designing transport systems free of mobility barriers. This summary of the proposed Industry Roadmap describes the industry and policy recommendations for adopting citizen-driven mobility innovations as standard industry practice.

White paper: Views of elderly persons on future mobility

The 2020 European Sustainable and Smart Mobility Strategy highlights key actions for making new mobility solutions affordable, accessible, and safe for all passengers, including those with

specific access needs. Here we present the mobility needs of elderly persons and their attitudes towards future mobility solutions, comparing their responses to those from people with disabilities and non-disabled participants. Our findings indicate that elderly people, people with disabilities, and non-disabled users share many of the same transit needs and priorities. These findings indicate that a large portion of society would benefit from inclusive transit, a number far greater than the 135 million Europeans with disabilities.

January 2023

D2.4 Quantitative Survey Report (second Version)

To fast-track to a Sustainable and Smart Mobility future, European cities and transit systems must be designed to be accessible, safe, and affordable for all. D2.4 presents and compares the results of user research on the preferences of persons with and without disabilities, particularly the elderly, and make recommendations for designing accessible emerging mobility systems for urban transport to ensure no passenger is left behind.

D8.7 Exploitation Strategy

This document defines the TRIPS exploitation methodology, describes the exploitation plan that should be implemented after the conclusion of the project for each TRIPS Project’s main outcome. The deliverable also contains the report on the survey carried out by the AAATE research team into factors that impact on the upscaling and transfer of innovation from one context to another.

D7.1 Industry Roadmap and policy recommendations

This report encompasses an industry roadmap for overcoming institutional barriers to adopt new inclusive digital mobility solutions.It synthesises policy recommendations and their validation with industry representatives.

December 2022

D.6.2 - Scientific publication of the MDI methodology

This document presents the paper published on the scientific Platform “Open Research Europe”. This paper presents the method followed for the development of a multi-dimensional mobility divide index (MDI) for assessing the accessibility of public transport, developed by using a co-design approach, directly involving the most vulnerable users in the index design process; first results of the methodology implementation are proposed as well.

November 2022

D5.3 Methodological framework document (second version)

D2.1 contains a distillation of the Mobility Survey findings and is aimed for the transport disability group of the EU Parliament and other transport and disability policy makers in the Member States.

D5.4 A Co-design-for-All MOOC module - Copy

D5.4 is the fourth deliverable from WP5 and is part of the overall methodology output of the TRIPS project. It takes the shape of an online university course for students and individuals who want to make use of the TRIPS methods to engage persons with disabilities in open innovation and equality of access in any sector to tackle a broad range of design challenges. The course is available for free on the coursera platform (, in a linear educational structure with weekly lectures and exercises.

October 2022

D6.1 Prototypes of inclusive mobility solutions and validation

The report describes the inclusive digital mobility solutions, which were designed, developed, and tested by seven project cities. The activities were led through 1) co-design workshops, 2) developing and validating high-level prototypes and/or solutions (TRL3-7) and testing solutions in situ where possible or 3) validating them via UX research/testing.

September 2022

D6.3 Business Case Reports

This document includes both the Business Case methodology and the Business Case reports of the four pilot solutions designed and prototyped within the TRIPS Project. Here, each TRIPS Full City Partner first analyses the feasibility for further development, and then the full implementation action plan of the digital solutions is defined. These plans should be implemented after the conclusion of the project.

May 2021

D2.1 White paper on requirements for future mobility systems

D2.1 contains a distillation of the Mobility Survey findings and is aimed for the transport disability group of the EU Parliament and other transport and disability policy makers in the Member States.

D5.2 Methodological framework document (1st version)

D5.2 is the second deliverable from WP5 and should be read as a process deliverable of the methodological framework of TRIPS. It reports on the first stages of tasks
T5.2 (Co-design for all Method Framework Development and Testing) and the entirety of T5.3 (Co-Design Method Training in Pilot cities). This refers to work conducted to codesign the first iteration of the collaboration methods with the seven groups of persons with disabilities working in the seven pilot cities of the project.

March 2021

D2.3 Quantitative survey report (1st version)

The 2020 European Sustainable and Smart Mobility Strategy highlight key actions for making new mobility solutions affordable, accessible, and safe for all passengers including those with access needs due to specific access needs. We present disabled users’ mobility needs and challenges, and initial attitudes towards future mobility and associated technology trends based on a survey among Europeans with disabilities to inform policy directions, investment decisions, and transport plans. Our findings suggest that an interactive, real-time, accessible journey planner would motivate users to travel and make their journey more independent, faster, easier, nicer, and safer. Bike sharing, e-scooters, and motorbike taxis are largely rejected in their current format. Microtransit and cable cars, ride pooling and robotaxis are quite promising alternatives, but we should pay special consideration to disabled women’s reservations around safety. Cycle lanes hold a promise for participants upon modification. According to our findings, people with disabilities are open to using augmented reality, robots, artificial intelligence alerts, and wearables and we should consider their seamless integration for improving the overall levels of urban transport accessibility. Our report also offers high-level design directions, as well as policy and industry recommendations for considerations.

D4.2 User evaluations and Design Concepts

D4.2 describes how persons with a disability experience public transport. In 7 co-design workshops, people with a disability from different European countries evaluated different mobility solutions and new technologies. Together with transport providers and other stakeholders, they developed suggestions to improve public transport for persons with a disability and older citizens. The report presents and analysis the results of these workshops, and gives a description of the design and implementation of the workshops. 

D4.1 MDI – Mobility Divide Index

D4.1 describes an innovative accessibility evaluation methodology: the Mobility Divide Index (MDI). The MDI aims to measure the existing mobility gaps between people with disabilities and non-disabled citizens towards public transport services. Based on the lack of comprehensive and easy-to-use accessibility metrics, we took practical steps to involve people with access needs to co-design the MDI investigating and prioritizing the main criticalities that affect their daily travel experience. In short, this document describes step-by-step our approach to create the MDI as a set of indicators to be rated by people with different access needs to a) provide evidence of the main criticalities to be addressed through the design and implementation of new inclusive mobility solutions, b) guide the design of new inclusive mobility solutions and measure their impacts and c) inform the transport sector encouraging positive changes in transport by providing recommendations for policy-making, new directions for service innovation, improvements and practical advice or highlighting investment priorities to pave the way for a more inclusive mobility.

D4.3 A Prioritised List of Potential Inclusive Mobility Solutions and barriers to adoption

D4.3 explains design concepts to improve the independent mobility of persons with a disability. The design concepts are divided into disruptive innovations, that would transform public transport, and incremental innovations that would improve public transport in little steps. Workshop participants assessed which innovations were desirable and feasible based on  the Mobility Divide Index (MDI) and a Political, Economic, Social and Technological (PEST) analysis. Also the social impact of each innovation and potential impact on access to transport were analyzed. Workshop participants also evaluated the political, economic, social and technological barriers and enablers that could influence implementation. Based on their evaluation, the feasibility and technological readiness were assessed.

September 2020

D5.1 Method Framing Document. Internal draft delivery

D5.1 outlines the theoretical background for the method design work in the TRIPS project. Based on this background, we describe an area of work and potentials for innovation. We define the main strategies for user involvement, with attention paid to Covid-19 mitigations. Together this forms the foundation for the main deliverable of TRIPS: a tested and validated codesign methodology that can be adapted to engage disabled people in open innovation for future mobility solutions.

In short: In this text, we write about the history of participation with people, and we describe how we will work in the project.

D3.1 Report on Mobility Services Trends Impacts and Related Policies

D3.1 describes the findings of a desktop research concerning new mobility services across Europe focusing on service and operational concepts from a disabled users’ perspective, highlighting disability-related gaps. The report includes indications about existing relevant service standards and a provision of examples of good practice where these already exist.

D2.2 Qualitative Insights report

D2.2 synthesizes insights gained from researcher observations and in-depth interviews with disabled people about their journeys and mobility needs, challenges and attitudes toward mobility solutions and criteria for travel, as well as their approaches to transport service barriers they have to face day by day.

July 2020

D3.2 Report on Digital Technology Trends Impacts and Related Policies

D3.2 explores current digital technology trends to investigate their impact on inclusive mobility. We start by identifying and describing trending technological domains in a standard format. Then, we focus on real-world applications, especially inclusive mobility applications. The final purpose of the deliverable is to understand how disrupting technologies can fill the mobility gaps experienced by disabled people.

In short: In this document, we explore current digital technology trends and their impact on future inclusive mobility solutions.

D3.4 Report on Assistive Technologies Trends Impacts and Related Policies

D3.4 explores the trends and state of the art in Digital Assistive Technologies in order to identify their potential impact on future mobility solutions. Assistive technologies have potential impact on all aspects of the life of users and in planning and promoting access to transport systems. Those charged with implementation should understand this opportunity to ensure an equitable and consistent approach across domains.

In short, the document seeks to guide the reader in understanding the impact of emerging technologies on the design of current and innovative transport systems for personal mobility to support inclusion of people with a disability.

D3.3 Report on Accessibility Standards and Legislation

D3.3 is about accessibility related standards and legislation. It covers the state-of-the-art of legislation (especially where referring to standards), existing formal and informal standards and ongoing standardisation activities, as well as of pertinent (preferably standards-based) certification schemes. It provides information on efforts to coordinate standardisation activities falling under the scope of this project. The investigation extends towards harmonised or non-harmonised use of controlled (written or oral) communication across platforms, including non-linguistic forms of communication (icons, cartoons, etc.) and potential communication barriers to certain user groups.

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